Porphyromonas gingivalis induced up-regulation of PD-L1 in colon carcinoma cells.
Programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) is a ligand for programmed death receptor (PD-1) that plays a major role in cell-mediated immune response; it regulates T-cell activation and regulates survival and functions of activated T cells. Expression of PD-L1 can induce chronic inflammation and activate mechanisms of immune evasion. PD-L1 is expressed in most of human carcinomas. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a major keystone pathogen in periodontitis that invade host cells and disposes a variety of virulence factors. The aim of the present study was to clarify the signaling pathway of P. gingivalis molecules that induce PD-L1 up-regulation in colon carcinoma cells. Additionally, it was investigated which components of P. gingivalis are responsible for PD-L1 induction. Colon cancer cells (CL-11) were stimulated with total membrane (TM) fractions, peptidoglycans (PDGs) and viable P. gingivalis bacteria. Seven signaling molecule inhibitors were used: receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIP2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor 1&2 inhibitor, NOD-like receptor, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, c-Jun N-terminal kinases inhibitor, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor, mitogen activated kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. PD-L1 protein expression was examined by western blot analysis and quantitative real time PCR. It was demonstrated that the TM fraction and PDG induced up-regulation of PD-L1 expression in colon cancer cells. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that PDG of P. gingivalis plays a major role in PD-L1 up-regulation in colon cancer cells. In addition, the mechanism of PD-L1 up-regulation depends on NOD 1 and NOD 2 and involves activation of RIP2 and MAPK signaling pathways.